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By Jurg Andreas Stuckelberger

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Additional info for A Weighted-graph Optimization Approach for Automatic Location of Forest Road Networks

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2). In this study, the minimum radius has been set at 20 m for regular curves and 10 m for switchbacks. Representation of such constraints requires one physical node to be split into 16 virtual nodes. Thus, the corresponding mathematical graph can be displayed three-dimensionally (3-D), consisting of 16 virtual layers, each of which maps one directional class. 3 illustrates this 3-D approach for turnings of different road links. Node O represents an incoming node, while Nodes A, B, C, and D represent potential intermediate control points, depending on the road direction.

A Moore neighborhood of Range 1 (Barile & Weisstein, 2002). A Moore neighborhood of Range 2, which provides 24 possible links and has 16 unique directions (Fig. 1b), has previously been used by Heinimann et al. (2003). However, 42 CHAPTER 2. ROAD NETWORK DESIGN MODELS that extension of 24 links results in only eight additional directions. Because one of our goals is to evaluate the effect of different link patterns on the road layout, we have also defined and assessed a 48-link pattern (Fig. 1c), which consists of the full Range 2 neighborhood, 16 links of Range 3, and eight links of Range 5.

2. 2. Scenario II, in which slope gradient was considered the only parameter affecting the spatial variability of construction costs. 1. 3. Scenario III, which considered both slope gradient and geotechnical information as decisive parameters as well as different road types for cost variability. 2. Scenario I served as a reference for the engineering practices currently used to estimate costs at a preliminary planning stage. 1 Results and discussion Spatial variability of construction costs The 35-km2 project area included the lake “W¨ agital” at the eastern boundary and a watershed at the western boundary.

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