By Dane Parker
The kind I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway is easily famous as a pathway activated by means of viral infections. it's activated via a number of microbial trend acceptance receptors together with the Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and several other cytosolic receptors. Activation of the sort I IFN pathway ends up in the construction of either antiviral elements and items that effect immune telephone functionality. extra lately it's been proven that micro organism also are able to activating this pathway.
Bacterial Activation of style I Interferonsreviews either the present figuring out of ways varied bacterial species may be able to turn on this pathway in addition to the impression kind I IFNs have at the end result to an infection. a number of diverse bacterial species are lined, spanning Gram confident and Gram unfavourable, intracellular, extracellular, and diversified host an infection websites. An creation to the pathogenesis of every organism is supplied, and the signaling molecules considering the activation of the kind I IFN pathway and the function it performs in animal an infection types also are covered.
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Extra resources for Bacterial Activation of Type I Interferons
Monocytogenes. Studies with BMDMs from knockout mice showed that MAVS was not required to produce wild-type amounts of IFN-β in response to L. monocytogenes . 7 macrophage-like cell line . These findings thus argued against an essential role for MDA5 or RIG-I in the interferon response to L. monocytogenes. However, when Abdullah et al.  more directly evaluated the effects of RIG-I and MDA5 during L. monocytogenes challenges they found that both reacted to cytosolic L. monocytogenes.
Monocytogenes-Induced Type I IFN Response During viral infections two cytosolic RNA helicases, retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), detect viral “patterned” RNA to initiate the interferon response . Both RIG-I and MDA5 contain two CARD domains required for dimerization and adaptor protein association, plus a DExD/H-box RNA helicase domain that allow for dsRNA recognition [36, 37]. Once dsRNA is detected, RIG-I or MDA5 molecules dimerize and are recruited to the mitochondria where they encounter their adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) .
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