By Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Warnatz, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Maas, Prof. Dr. Robert W. Dibble (auth.)
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Additional resources for Combustion: Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pollutant Formation
It follows for closed, thermally insulated systems (OQ = 0) (dS)rev. 17), _ S2 - Sl - ()Qrev. J-. 19) When viewed with the advantage of statistical thermodynamics, entropy is seen as a measure of molecular chaos. Details can be found in textbooks on this topic (e. , Atkins 1996, Tien and Lienhard 1971). 4) describes the change of entropy in thermodynamic processes. Entropies, in contrast to enthalpies, have a zero point dictated by nature. The third law ofthennodynamics identifies this zero point of entropy by lim S = 0 T--70 for ideal crystals of pure compounds .
I.. 2), this equation simplifies to the species mass conservation equation aw. of aw. p - ' +pv-' +-' az az at = 'i. pwjhj j J/m3 LPViwihi + jq j J/(m 2s) (energy conservation) . Here hi denotes the specific enthalpy of speciesj (in J/k:g) andjq a heat flux, which corresponds to the diffusion flux j; introduced above and is caused by transport of energy due to temperature gradients (see below). The term Lpjvjhj describes the change of enthalpy due to the flow of species (composed of the mean mass velocity v and the diffusion velocity \j).
Their motion is in complete disorder (molecular chaos). The statistical velocity is given by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution stating that the particle number in a velocity interval Avis N( v)Av oc rr·exp( -rrlk1}Av (for review see, e. , Atkins 1996). The molecular motion causes some molecules to move from one layer to the other. Because the gas layers have different mean properties (momentum, internal energy, concentration), different mean amounts of momentum, energy and mass are transferred in both directions (layer 1 ~ layer 2 or layer 2 ~layer 1).