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By Richard L. Epstein

Severe considering isn't as effortless because it sounds. serious considering exhibits you the way decision-making mistakes are made, and the way to prevent them. by means of combining easy causes with time-tested theories, severe considering is helping you meet the demanding situations of existence head-on. and since it comprises over a thousand examples drawn from daily life and hundreds research instruments, this textbook is helping you get the grade you would like.

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To evaluate an argument, you have to imagine possible ways the premises could be true. You have to be creative. Imagine the possibilities. Here are some basic points you need to remember. • Every good argument is valid or strong. • Not every valid or strong argument is good (a premise could be implausible). • Only invalid arguments are classified from strong to weak. • Every weak argument is bad. 42 CHAPTER 3 What Is a Good Argument? C. The Tests for an Argument to Be Good We have three tests for an argument to be good.

Analysis Dick makes an objective claim: It's about how Spot acts. Zoe infers from that a subjective claim about what Spot thinks or feels. Example 6 There is an even number of stars in the sky. Analysis You might think it's easier to know whether objective claims are true compared to subjective ones. But this example is objective and no one has any idea how to go about finding out whether it is true. On the other hand, when it's well below freezing outside and I see my dog whining and shivering, I'm almost certain that "My dog feels cold" is true.

Is Zoe right? How should Dick respond? 24 CHAPTER 2 What Are We Arguing About? C. " It's clear that Tom thinks "wrong" means no one should do it. Tom isn't speaking about how the world is, but how it should be. Descriptive and prescriptive claims A claim is descriptive if it says what is. A claim is prescriptive if it says what should be. Compare: Drunken drivers kill more people than sober drivers do. descriptive There should be a law against drunken driving. prescriptive Dick is cold. Dick should put his sweater on.

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