By Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan, James D. McCalley, Chen Ching Liu
This booklet files contemporary advances within the box of modeling, simulation, keep watch over, protection and reliability of Cyber- actual structures (CPS) in strength grids. the purpose of this e-book is to assist the reader achieve insights into operating of CPSs and comprehend their power in reworking the facility grids of the next day to come. This publication should be worthy for all those people who are attracted to layout of cyber-physical structures, be they scholars or researchers in energy platforms, CPS modeling software program builders, technical advertising and marketing execs and enterprise policy-makers.
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Extra resources for Cyber Physical Systems Approach to Smart Electric Power Grid
At a certain instant of time, Giotto program can only be in one of its modes. However, during its execution, a Giotto program transitions from one mode to another based on the values of different ports. These possible mode transitions are specified in Giotto syntax through mode swithces. A mode switch specifies a target mode, switch frequency, and a guarded driver. Formally, a Giotto mode is made up of several concurrent tasks, a set of mode switches, a set of mode ports, a set of actuator updates, and a period.
Therefore, we propose a design of the service-based computing platform that combines two virtual machines: a hard real-time Embedded Machine (E Machine) and a soft real-time Compiler Machine (C Machine). E Machine executes the hard real-time service code and C Machine executes the soft real-time code for service compiler. The resulting service-based computing platform is shown in Figure 7. 3 Service Compiler Giotto compilers, reported in the literature, typically work in two phases: platform independent phase and platform dependent phase.
The PI output is quantized to the nearest integer to be used as the correction signal to the middleware concurrency level. Figure 12 demonstrates simulation results for a sample three-area application with a desired end-to-end run time of 20 s. As shown in Figures 12a-12c, with the PI controller in the loop, execution time is eventually stabilized around the desired run time of 20 s, with a steady-state concurrency level of 19. '6(3HU([HFXWLRQ5XQ7LPHV (QGWR(QG5XQ7LPH [ WLPHV (a) Per-execution DSE run time [Blue] Below desired, [Red] Above desired $GDSWHGFRQFXUUHQF\OHYHO Q&RQFXUUHQF\ [ WLPHV (b) Middleware concurrency level adaptation 'LVWULEXWLRQRI(QGWR(QG5XQ7LPHVZLWK$GDSWLYH0LGGOHZDUH WLPHV (c) End-to-end run time histogram of overall execution with desired run time Fig.