By Ayman ElNashar, Mohamed El-saidny, Mahmoud Sherif
Layout, Deployment and function of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the main functional facets and most sensible perform of 4G networks layout, functionality, and deployment. additionally, the booklet makes a speciality of the end-to-end features of the LTE community structure and diverse deployment situations of industrial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE concentrating on the entry stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and actual Layer. The air interface defined during this booklet covers the recommendations of LTE body constitution, downlink and uplink scheduling, and certain illustrations of the information stream around the protocol layers. It describes the main points of the optimization technique together with functionality measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms as well as demonstrating universal concerns and case stories in keeping with real box effects. The e-book offers targeted functionality research of key features/enhancements resembling C-DRX for Smartphones battery saving, CSFB strategy to aid voice calls with LTE, and MIMO ideas.
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Extra resources for Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks
4 Spectrum Allocation in UMTS and LTE One of the main factors in any cellular system is the deployed frequency spectrum. 2G, 3G, and 4G systems offer multiple band options. This depends on the regulator in each country and the availability of spectrum sharing among multiple network operators in the same country. The device’s support of different frequency bands is driven by the hardware capabilities. Therefore, not all bands are supported by a single device. The demand of multi-mode and multi-band device depends on the market where the device is being commercialized.
For this purpose the packet domain may offer either direct transparent access to the Internet; or a non-transparent access to the intranet/ISP. In this case the packet domain, that is, the GGSN/PGW, takes part in these functions. 24. This signaling interface supports the transfer of policy control and charging rules information (QoS) between the PCEF in the P-GW and a PCRF server. The Gx application has an own vendor specific Diameter application . With regard to the Diameter protocol defined over the Gx interface, the PCRF acts as a Diameter server, in the sense that it is the network element that handles PCC rule requests for a particular area.
Other advantages include dynamic allocation, increased spectral efficiency, and the improved usage of beamforming techniques. This is due to having the same uplink and downlink frequency characteristics. 4 Spectrum Allocation in UMTS and LTE One of the main factors in any cellular system is the deployed frequency spectrum. 2G, 3G, and 4G systems offer multiple band options. This depends on the regulator in each country and the availability of spectrum sharing among multiple network operators in the same country.