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By NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM

One hundred thirty pages. UNBOUND BINDER-READY / free LEAF, BINDER-READY implies that the pages are hole-punched and able to be installed binders. PLEASE notice THE BINDER(S) are usually not incorporated. free LEAF UNBOUND version NO BINDER. ckd

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Guidelines for Concrete Mixtures Containing Supplementary Cementitious Materials to Enhance Durability of Bridge Decks

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Usually minimization of concrete shrinkage due to drying is desired because the lower shrinkage results in lower stress and thus less potential for cracking. 21 shows a sample desirability function for drying shrinkage. Free drying shrinkage of the concrete mixture is only one of the factors that determine whether shrinkage-related cracking will occur. A measurement of drying shrinkage provides some indication of whether cracking is likely but does not measure the cracking tendency directly. Therefore, this desirability function was defined to avoid rating any mixture with a very low desirability.

4, respectively. 4. For both exposures, a scaling rating of 5 means that the entire mixture is unacceptable and thus a desirability of 0 is given. Desirability Function for Mass Loss. Some researchers use a mass loss measurement to quantify the material that has scaled off a specimen (28). This method generates nonsubjective metrics of the concrete performance that are not based on, at least, a half number scale; it, therefore, can differentiate between mixtures that display good performance and would ordinarily receive the same visual rating.

015 in. 38 mm] wide). Identifying the causes and preventing cracking in these structures is difficult and complex. Concrete develops cracks when local tensile stresses exceed the local tensile strength of the concrete. Tensile stresses in bridge decks are caused by temperature changes in the bridge, concrete shrinkage, and sometimes bending from dead or live loads. A combination of shrinkage and thermal stresses causes most early-age cracks. Shrinkage and thermal stresses develop in all composite decks, because the girders and decking restrain the natural thermal and shrinkage movement of the concrete.

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