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By Chad A. Mirkin, Thomas J. Meade, Sarah Hurst Petrosko, Alexander H. Stegh

This ebook discusses rising nanotechnology-based instruments that experience the capability to dramatically impression melanoma examine, diagnostics, and remedy. melanoma is a posh, devastating, and debilitating illness and, even if a lot development has been made, novel, greater diagnostic and remedies are nonetheless wanted, specially for complicated cancers. the last word target is to observe melanoma early and non-invasively and to supply efficacious and specified precision remedies that reason fewer destructive negative effects. This ebook explains how nanotechnology can take advantage of the size-, shape-, and composition-dependent houses of nanomaterials to supply novel instruments for precision melanoma medication. it will likely be of curiosity to researchers and pros operating within the fields of chemistry, biology, fabrics technological know-how and engineering, and medication who are looking to examine extra approximately this attention-grabbing and fast moving quarter of research.

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Nano Lett 7:2112–2115 15. Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL, Mucic RC, Storhoff JJ (1996) A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials. Nature 382:607–609 16. Cutler JI, Zheng D, Xu X, Giljohann DA, Mirkin CA (2010) Polyvalent oligonucleotide iron oxide nanoparticle “Click” conjugates. Nano Lett 10:1477–1480 17. Zhang C, Macfarlane RJ, Young KL, Choi CHJ, Hao L, Auyeung E, Liu G, Zhou X, Mirkin CA (2013) A general approach to DNA-programmable atom equivalents. Nat Mater 12:741–746 Nanoflares as Probes for Cancer Diagnostics 21 18.

Among nanomaterials, spherical nucleic acids (SNAs; Fig. 2) represent an attractive class of single-entity agents, where therapeutic oligonucleotides that can be designed and synthesized to function through either the RNAi or antisense pathway; and these structures are the focus of this chapter. 4 Spherical Nucleic Acids (SNAs) SNAs, typically composed of densely functionalized and highly oriented nucleic acids on nanoparticle cores, represent an emerging class of therapeutics for diseases, including many forms of cancer, because they are capable of overcoming the limitations of traditional oligonucleotide delivery methods and provide an alternative path to gene regulation (Fig.

Epidermal thickness was measured from the top of the stratum granulosum to the basement membrane (arrows) at three equidistant sites. Adapted with permission from Zheng et al. [39]. Copyright 2012. , regulate gene expression via the RNAi or antisense pathway). However, SNAs that can perform multiple therapeutic, diagnostic, targeting, and imaging functionalities simultaneously within a cell can also be synthesized. Using solid-phase DNA synthesis, modified phosphoramidites can be used to add specific chemical functional groups onto oligonucleotides; and these functional groups can be used as handles to attach drugs, small molecules, or antibodies of interest to these oligonucleotides.

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