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By Simm R., Bacon M.

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4) and up-going waves (such as the two reflections in Fig. 4). 4 Schematic geometry of VSP raypaths from a surface source to borehole geophones. The separation of the source from the borehole would in practice be very small for the case of a zero offset VSP, but is here exaggerated for clarity. , 2004; reprinted with permission of the author and the CSEG Recorder). 5 Schematic graph of VSP arrival time against geophone depth for VSP data. also present but these arrive after the direct wave and single bounce up-going reflections.

16 Simple interference models: (a–c) wedge model with opposite polarity reflections and thickness vs amplitude characteristics, (d) seismic wavelet, (e)–(g) wedge model with same polarity reflections. 0135 s. e. 31Fd) s. Of course in reality resolution is dependent on the wavelet in the data. A useful reference is Kallweit and Wood (1982) where the resolving properties of Ricker wavelets are discussed. e. 3. A common first order effect evident on seismic data is the decrease in frequency content with depth (Fig.

2003). e. the phase). 1 shows frequency components that have a peak aligned at time zero. Such a wavelet is termed zero phase. As described in Chapter 2 a zero phase wavelet is ideal for the interpreter because it has a strong dominant central trough or peak at zero time. If this is the wavelet in a processed seismic dataset, then an isolated subsurface interface between layers of different impedance will be marked by a correctly registered trough or peak (depending on the sign of the impedance contrast and the polarity convention used).

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