By Germen J. de Haan; Jarich Koekstra, Willem Visser, and Goffe Jensma (editors)
During this quantity, Germen de Haan supplies a multi-faceted view of the syntax, sociolinguistics, and phonology of West-Frisian. the writer discusses specific elements of the syntax of verbs in Frisian: finiteness and Verb moment, embedded root phenomena, the verbal complicated, verbal complementation, and complementizer contract. simply because Frisian has minority language prestige and is of curiosity to sociolinguists, the writer stories the linguistic alterations in Frisian lower than the impact of the dominant Dutch language and, extra in most cases, displays on the way to care for contact-induced switch in grammar. ultimately, in 3 phonological articles, the writer discusses nasalization in Frisian, the putatively symmetrical vowel stock of Frisian, and the difference among schwa + sonorant consonants and syllabic sonorant consonants.
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Extra resources for Studies in West Frisian Grammar: Selected Papers by Germen J. de Haan
2 Nominal inflection The same conclusion seems to hold, if we look at the character of Old Frisian nomina! inflection in comparison with that of related languages. The Old Germanic 23. A Frisian innovation is the deletion of the /n/ of the infinitival suffix. 39 40 Studies in West Frisian Grammar nominal system still reflects very clearly features of the older system in which gender--specific inflectional suffixes for case marking are assigned to distinct stem declensions. 05), Old High German is the most conservative in this respect, but also in Old Saxon and Old Dutch, these older features can be recognized.
Tiohan); Ofr. dwa (<*do:an). Again Old Frisian seems to represent a later stage with respect to contracted verbs. Against the background of Jespersen's cycle of negation (cf. Jespersen (1917) ), a potentially interesting syntactic criterion for periodization is negation. According to Jespersen's cycle, the development of sentential negation in natural languages begins with a stage in which negation is expressed by a single negative element, let us say negr As a consequence of phonological reduction of this element (signalled by cliticization), the linguistic system requires the addition of an 43 44 Studies in West Frisian Grammar extra negative element neg2 to negr In this second stage, two ways of expressing negation cooccur: single negation by neg1, and double negation by negr ..
According to Strang (1970: 249), this happened for Middle English in the period 1170-1370. Peters (1973: 86-87) mentions open syllable lengthening as an important criterion f(lr the transition of Old Saxon to Middle Low German. Open syllable lengthening has the effect that the opposition between short and long consonants, which is characteristic for Old Germanic, has disappeared. Long consonants underwent the process of degemination. The reason for this is that this type of lengthening puts pressure on the phonemic contrast betw·een short and long consonants: (Hl) a.